第一課 Lesson 1

  1. 簡介 introduction

  2. 音節-聲韻調 syllables

  3. 拼音 pinyin/pingjam


簡介 introduction

According to Mr. Wong Sek Ling’s study on Cantonese Syllably 黃錫凌編的《粵音韻彙》, there are 53 distinct vowels and 19 consonants.

Including the silent consonant or zero consonant (vowels without a consonant), there will be 20 consonants.

Using a table to represent all possible Cantonese syllables, it will as as such:


20 consonants such as
-, b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, gw, kw, w, z, c, s, j

53

v

o

w

e

l

s

A total of 53 × 20=1060 distinct syllables.

Not all syllables has their linked Chinese Characters.

Specially for m and ng vowels, there are no actual consonant linked to these two vowels, these two are just standalone by themselves. Therefore there are actually less than 1060 distinct syllables used by Cantonese speakers.



音節-聲韻調 the syllables

, the vowels, can be categorized as

  1. the Principal vowels – there are only

seven of them, namely,

ah, yee, oo, eh, ore, yue, ur and using

a’or ‘aa’for ah

i’ for yee, say ‘ee’ even when it is

called the letter ‘eye’

u’ for oo, ‘e’ for eh, ‘o’ for ore,

y’ for yue‘oe’for ur

2. the Diphthongs – combining the Pincipal vowels. Only a few principal vowels can be combined. The valid ones are:

aai, ai, aau, au, iu, ui, ei, oi, ou, oey

3. the Finals or the Endings

the possible endings or finals are m, n, ng, p, k, t. Only Principal vowels can have the endings, diphthongs do not have endings.

Examples are aam, am, aan, an, aang, ang, aap, ap, aat, at, aak, ak are for Principal vowel ‘a’ which has a long and short one, that is ‘aa’ and ‘a’.

For ‘i’, there are im, in, ing, ip, ik, it.

For ‘oe’, there are only oen, oeng, oet, oek

For ‘u’, there are un, ung, ut, uk

For ‘o’, there are on, ong, ot, ok.

For ‘e’, there are only eng, ek.

For ‘y’, there are yn, yt.

拼音 pinyin/pingjam

Knowing the vowels and consonants, we can combine them and this is called pinyin in Putonghua but called Pingjam in Cantonese. The symbols used are based on the resolution under the LSHK(Linguistic Society of Hong Kong) Transcription System 香港語言學學會 注音系統.

Putonghua 聲母表

b

p

m

f

d

t

n

l

g

k

h

 

j

q

x

 

zh

ch

sh

r

z

c

s

 

Putonghua 韻母表

 

i

u

ü

a

ia

ua

 

o

 

uo

 

e

ie

 

ai

 

uai

 

ei

 

uei

 

ao

iao

 

 

ou

iou

 

 

an

ian

uan

üan

en

in

uen

ün

ang

iang

uang

 

eng  亨的韻母

ing

ueng

 

ong 轟的韻母

iong